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Boreal Shield and Newfoundland Boreal ecozones+ evidence for key findings summary

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Canadian Biodiversity: Ecosystem Status and Trends 2010

Evidence for Key Findings Summary Report No. 10
Published by the Canadian Councils of Resource Ministers


Document Information

Cover page

Library and Archives Canada Cataloguing in Publication

Boreal Shield and Newfoundland Boreal ecozones+ evidence for key findings summary.

Issued also in French under title:
Sommaire des éléments probants relativement aux constatations clés pour les écozones+ du Bouclier boréal et Boréale de Terre-Neuve.
Electronic monograph in PDF format.
ISBN 978-1-100-24959-9
Cat. no.: En14-43/0-10-2010E-PDF

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Cover photos: Boreal chickadee, © istockphoto.com/C. Griggs and Pukaskwa National Park, © istockphoto.com/vividus

This report should be cited as:
ESTR Secretariat. 2014. Boreal Shield and Newfoundland Boreal ecozones+ evidence for key findings summary. Canadian Biodiversity: Ecosystem Status and Trends 2010, Evidence for Key Findings Summary Report No. 10. Canadian Councils of Resource Ministers. Ottawa, ON. xv--198 p.

© Her Majesty the Queen in Right of Canada, 2014

Aussi disponible en français

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Preface

The Canadian Councils of Resource Ministers developed a Biodiversity Outcomes FrameworkFootnote2 in 2006 to focus conservation and restoration actions under the Canadian Biodiversity Strategy.Footnote5 Canadian Biodiversity: Ecosystem Status and Trends 2010Footnote6 was the first report under this framework. It presents 22 key findings that emerged from synthesis and analysis of background technical reports prepared on the status and trends for many cross-cutting national themes (the Technical Thematic Report Series) and for individual terrestrial and marine ecozones+ of Canada (the Ecozone+ Status and Trends Assessment Report Series). More than 500 experts participated in data analysis, writing, and review of these foundation documents. Summary reports were also prepared for each terrestrial ecozone+ to present the ecozone+-specific evidence related to each of the 22 national key findings (the Evidence for Key Findings Summary Report Series). Together, the full complement of these products constitutes the 2010 Ecosystem Status and Trends Report (ESTR).

2010 Ecosystem Status and Trends Report (ESTR)
report

This report, Boreal Shield and Newfoundland Boreal ecozones+ Evidence for Key Findings Summary, presents evidence from the Boreal Shield and Newfoundland Boreal ecozones+ related to the 22 national key findings and highlights important trends specific to these ecozones+. This summary report draws from the Boreal Shield Ecozone+ Status and Trends AssessmentFootnote7 and the draft Newfoundland Boreal Ecozone+ Status and Trends Assessment, as well as the national Technical Thematic Report series that were part of the Ecosystem Status and Trends Report program. It is not a comprehensive assessment of all ecosystem-related information. The level of detail presented on each key finding varies and important issues or datasets may have been missed. Some emphasis has been placed on information from the national Technical Thematic Report Series. As in all ESTR products, the time frames over which trends are assessed vary – both because time frames that are meaningful for these diverse aspects of ecosystems vary and because the assessment is based on the best available information, which is over a range of time periods.

Although the Boreal Shield and Newfoundland Boreal ecozones+ were treated in separate reports in the Status and Trends Assessments, they were combined for this Evidence for Key Findings Summary because some of the Technical Thematic reports combined these ecozones+ and because the original frameworkFootnote8 combined these areas into one Boreal ecozone. Whenever possible, information for the two ecozones+ was distinguished for this report.

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Ecological classification system – ecozones+

A slightly modified version of the Terrestrial Ecozones of Canada, described in the National Ecological Framework for Canada,Footnote9 provided the ecosystem-based units for all reports related to this project. Modifications from the original framework include: adjustments to terrestrial boundaries to reflect improvements from ground-truthing exercises; the combination of three Arctic ecozones into one; the use of two ecoprovinces – Western Interior Basin and Newfoundland Boreal; the addition of nine marine ecosystem-based units; and, the addition of the Great Lakes as a unit. This modified classification system is referred to as "ecozones+" throughout these reports to avoid confusion with the more familiar "ecozones" of the original framework.Footnote8 For the Boreal Shield, the boundary between the Hudson Plains and Boreal Shield ecozones was updated within Ontario, and Newfoundland is treated as a separate ecozone+, the Newfoundland Boreal Ecozone+.

Ecological classification framework for the Ecosystem Status and Trends Report for Canada.

map

Long Description for Ecozones+ map of Canada

This map of Canada shows the ecological classification framework for the Ecosystem Status and Trends Report, named "ecozones+". This map shows the distribution of 15 terrestrial ecozones+ (Atlantic Maritime; Newfoundland Boreal; Taiga Shield; Mixedwood Plains; Boreal Shield; Hudson Plains; Prairies; Boreal Plains; Montane Cordillera; Western Interior Basin; Pacific Maritime; Boreal Cordillera; Taiga Cordillera; Taiga Plains; Arctic), two large lake ecozones+ (Great Lakes; Lake Winnipeg), and nine marine ecozones+ (North Coast and Hecate Strait; West Coast Vancouver Island; Strait of Georgia; Gulf of Maine and Scotian Shelf; Estuary and Gulf of St. Lawrence; Newfoundland and Labrador Shelves; Hudson Bay, James Bay and Fox Basin; Canadian Arctic Archipelago; Beaufort Sea).

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Acknowledgements

The ESTR Secretariat acknowledges Gregg Sheehy, Shelley Pardy Moores, and Isabelle Turcotte for the preparation of various drafts of the report. This report was overseen and edited by Emily Gonzales. Kelly Badger was the lead graphics designer. Additional support was provided by Ellorie McKnight, Michelle Connolly, Eric Jacobsen, Clementine Hiltner, and others. It is based on the draft Boreal Shield Ecozone+ Status and Trends AssessmentFootnote7 and the draft Newfoundland Boreal Ecozone+ Status and Trends Assessment. Other experts made significant contributions to that draft report and are listed below. Reviews were provided by scientists and resource managers from relevant provincial/territorial and federal government agencies. The Canadian Society of Ecology and Evolution also coordinated reviews with external experts.

Boreal Shield Ecozone+

Boreal Shield Ecozone+ Status and Trends Assessment acknowledgements

Lead authors: I. Turcotte, L. Venier, and D. Kirk

Contributing authors: J. Boyd, M. McLaughlan, B. Dalton, R. Miller, B. Rodrigues, E. Muto, K. Pawley, É. Cadieux and A.-M. Turgeon

Authors of ESTR Thematic Technical Reports from which material is drawn
Large-scale climate oscillations influencing Canada, 1900–2008: B. Bonsal, and A. Shabbar
Canadian climate trends, 1950–2007: X. Zhang, R. Brown, L. Vincent, W. Skinner, Y. Feng, and E. Mekis
Trends in large fires in Canada, 1959–2007: C.C. Krezek-Hanes, F. Ahern, A. Cantin, and M.D. Flannigan
Wildlife pathogens and diseases in Canada: F.A. Leighton. Contributors: I.K. Barker, D. Campbell, P.-Y. Daoust, Z. Lucus, J. Lumsden, D. Schock, H. Schwantje, K. Taylor, and G. Wobeser
Trends in breeding waterfowl in Canada: M. Fast, B. Collins, and M. Gendron
Trends in permafrost conditions and ecology in northern Canada: S. Smith
Northern caribou population trends in Canada: A. Gunn, D. Russell, and J. Eamer
Woodland caribou, boreal population, trends in Canada: C. Callaghan, S. Virc, and J. Duffe
Landbird trends in Canada, 1968–2006: C. Downes, P. Blancher, and B. Collins. Contributors: G. Falardeau, K. Mawhinney, J. Paquet, M. Cadman, L. Friesen, K. Hannah, B. Dale, W. Easton, and P. Sinclair
Trends in Canadian shorebirds: C. Gratto-Trevor, R.I.G. Morrison, B. Collins, J. Rausch, and V. Johnston
Trends in wildlife habitat capacity on agricultural land in Canada, 1986–2006: S.K. Javorek and M.C. Grant
Trends in residual soil nitrogen for agricultural land in Canada, 1981–2006: C.F. Drury, J.Y. Yang, and R. De Jong
Soil erosion on cropland: introduction and trends for Canada: B.G. McConkey, D.A. Lobb, S. Li, J.M.W. Black, and P.M. Krug
Monitoring ecosystems remotely: a selection of trends measured from satellite observations of Canada: F. Ahern, J. Frisk, R. Latifovic, and D. Pouliot
Inland colonial waterbird and marsh bird trends for Canada: D.V.C. Weseloh. Contributors: G. Beyersbergen, S. Boyd, A. Breault, P. Brousseau, S.G. Gilliland, B. Jobin, B. Johns, V. Johnston, S. Meyer, C. Pekarik, J. Rausch, and S.I. Wilhelm
Climate-driven trends in Canadian streamflow, 1961–2003: A. Cannon, T. Lai, and P. Whitfield. Contributors: R.A. Curry, N. Glozier, and D.L. Peters
Biodiversity in Canadian lakes and rivers: W.A. Monk and D.J. Baird

Review conducted by scientists and renewable resource and wildlife managers from relevant provincial and federal government agencies through a review process administered by the ESTR Steering Committee. Additional reviews of specific sections were conducted by university researchers in their field of expertise at the request of the authors.

Direction provided by the ESTR Steering Committee composed of representatives of federal, provincial, and territorial agencies.

Editing, synthesis, technical contributions, maps and graphics, and report production by the ESTR Secretariat of Environment Canada.

Aboriginal Traditional Knowledge compiled from publicly available sources by D.D. Hurlburt.

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Newfoundland Boreal Ecozone+

Draft Newfoundland Boreal Ecozone+ Status and Trends Assessment acknowledgements

Lead authors: S.P. Moores, J. Humber, and T. Leonard

Contributing authors: G. Luther, J. Blake, M. McGrath, C. Sheffield, J. Gosse, D. Pelley, S. Squires, C. Hanel

Authors of ESTR Thematic Technical Reports from which material is drawn
Large-scale climate oscillations influencing Canada, 1900–2008: B. Bonsal and A. Shabbar
Canadian climate trends, 1950–2007: X. Zhang, R. Brown, L. Vincent, W. Skinner, Y. Feng, and E. Mekis
Trends in large fires in Canada, 1959–2007: C.C. Krezek-Hanes, F. Ahern, A. Cantin, and M.D. Flannigan
Wildlife pathogens and diseases in Canada: F.A. Leighton. Contributors: I.K. Barker, D. Campbell, P.-Y. Daoust, Z. Lucus, J. Lumsden, D. Schock, H. Schwantje, K. Taylor, and G. Wobeser
Trends in breeding waterfowl in Canada: M. Fast, B. Collins, and M. Gendron
Trends in permafrost conditions and ecology in northern Canada: S. Smith
Northern caribou population trends in Canada: A. Gunn, D. Russell, and J. Eamer
Landbird trends in Canada, 1968–2006: C. Downes, P. Blancher and B. Collins. Contributors: G. Falardeau, K. Mawhinney, J. Paquet, M. Cadman, L. Friesen, K. Hannah, B. Dale, W. Easton, and P. Sinclair
Monitoring ecosystems remotely: a selection of trends measured from satellite observations of Canada: F. Ahern, J. Frisk, R. Latifovic, and D. Pouliot
Biodiversity in Canadian lakes and rivers: W.A. Monk and D.J. Baird

Direction provided by the ESTR Steering Committee composed of representatives of federal, provincial and territorial agencies.

Editing, synthesis, technical contributions, maps and graphics, and report production by the ESTR Secretariat of Environment Canada.

Aboriginal Traditional Knowledge compiled from publicly available sources by D.D. Hurlburt.

Figure 1. Overview map of the Boreal Shield and Newfoundland Boreal ecozones+.

map

Long Description for Figure 1

This map shows the extent of the Boreal Shield and Newfoundland Boreal ecozones+. The Boreal Shield extends from Saskatchewan to Labrador and Newfoundland.

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Footnotes

Footnote 2

Environment Canada. 2006. Biodiversity outcomes framework for Canada. Canadian Councils of Resource Ministers. Ottawa, ON. 8 p.

Return to footnote 2

Footnote 5

Federal-Provincial-Territorial Biodiversity Working Group. 1995. Canadian biodiversity strategy: Canadaʹs response to the Convention on Biological Diversity. Environment Canada, Biodiversity Convention Office. Hull, QC. 86 p.

Return to footnote 5

Footnote 6

Federal, Provincial and Territorial Governments of Canada. 2010. Canadian biodiversity: ecosystem status and trends 2010. Canadian Councils of Resource Ministers. Ottawa, ON. vi + 142 p.

Return to footnote 6

Footnote 7

Environment Canada. 2014. Boreal Shield Ecozone+ Status and Trends Assessment Draft Report. Canadian Biodiversity: Ecosystem Status and Trends 2010, Technical Ecozone+ Report. Canadian Councils of Resource Ministers. Unpublished.

Return to footnote 7

Footnote 8

Rankin, R., Austin, M. and Rice, J. 2011. Ecological classification system for the ecosystem status and trends report. Canadian Biodiversity: Ecosystem Status and Trends 2010, Technical Thematic Report No. 1. Canadian Councils of Resource Ministers. Ottawa, ON. ii + 14 p.

Return to footnote 8

Footnote 9

Ecological Stratification Working Group. 1995. A national ecological framework for Canada. Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada, Research Branch, Centre for Land and Biological Resources Research and Environment Canada, State of the Environment Directorate, Ecozone Analysis Branch. Ottawa, ON/Hull, QC. vii + 125 p.

Return to footnote 9

Introduction